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We share important information about lateral lumbar interbody fusion (XLIF).
A lateral lumbar interbody fusion may be needed for several reasons. The most common reason is instability at one level of the lumbar spine caused by previous nerve root decompression surgery (which reduces the strength in the stabilising soft tissues around the joint). This is especially common in the over 60’s patient group as the joint/s have had more time to destabilise.
An anatomic defect known as a pars defect which is essentially a fracture to the stabilizing parts of the vertebrae, normally sustained as an adolescent, may be another reason why a lateral lumbar interbody fusion is needed.
Thirdly, in cases of intractable spinal pain when there is evidence of pathology at one level a lateral lumbar interbody fusion may be considered. The fusion should stop movement at that joint, thereby, reducing pain levels. All other treatment options including analgesia, physiotherapy and injections will be considered prior to a fusion operation, however.
A lateral lumbar interbody fusion is performed by turning the patient on their side after they are anaesthetised. This enables the surgeon to make an incision and access the relevant levels of the lumbar spine from the side
To achieve the fusion, the surgeon will firstly use x-rays to identify the disc to be removed. The skin will then be marked and two incisions made in the lower torso.
Carefully, a muscle called the psoas and the abdominal organs will be pushed aside manually by the surgeon to avoid any damage to these tissues. A tube known as a dilator will then be inserted above the disc to be removed, and a retractor tool will be used to split the muscles and allow the surgeon to more easily visualise and work on the spine.
The entire disc will then be removed with specialised tools and replaced with a combination of a bone graft and a metal fusion cage. Sometimes, instrumentation known as pedicle screws will also be inserted, depending on the underlying cause for the instability and pain.
This specific type of fusion cannot be considered when one of the joints requiring the fusion is the lowest joint in the spine – the L5/S1 joint. This is because the iliac bones of the pelvis inhibit the surgeon from gaining access to the joint adequately. This may also apply to patients with an anatomically low L4/5 joint for the same reasons. In these circumstances the normal fusion technique is known as trans-forminal lumbar interbody fusion referred to as a TLIF.
There are some specific risks associated with a lateral lumbar interbody fusion operation. These will be discussed in detail with you by your surgeon prior to your operation and can include:
Some general complications of lumbar spine surgery which affect a very small percentage of patients can include: