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Rectal bleeding refers to a discharge of blood from the bottom. We look what causes rectal bleeding and how it can be treated.
If the blood is particularly dark in colour and sticky, the bleeding may have occurred higher up in the digestive system. This can lead to the faeces turning black or plum-coloured (known as melena), which requires urgent medical treatment.
Other causes can include ischemic colitis (colon inflammation caused by reduced blood flow), proctitis (inflammation of the rectum), pseudomembranous colitis (colon inflammation caused by an infection), radiation therapy, and solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (a sore on the wall of the rectum). There are some serious underlying conditions that are less common causes of rectal bleedings, such as colon and rectal cancers, and inflammatory bowel disease, such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
The doctor will first ask the patient a series of questions and may conduct a physical examination of the rectum. This involves putting a gloved finger inside the bottom (rectum). It is a painless procedure and will usually takes one to five minutes, depending on whether your GP finds anything unusual. The doctor may then take a stool sample and test for blood.
The patient may also take a blood test to check to see if they are anaemic. The results will give the doctor an idea of the extent of the bleeding and how chronic it may be. The patient may also be referred to a hospital or specialist clinic if further examinations and tests are needed.
If the patient has bleeding in the digestive tract, they may undergo an endoscopy. This procedure allows the doctor to see exactly where the bleeding is happening. In some cases, the doctor can use the endoscope to treat the cause of bleeding. It is a thin, flexible tool that can be inserted through the mouth or rectum to see the areas of concern and take a tissue sample, or biopsy, if required.
Several other procedures can be used to find the source of bleeding, including:
There is the specific telescopic examinations that can be undertaken to look into rectal bleeding, some of which take place in the clinic, or a more invasive endoscopy using the flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy. If the upper digestive tract is bleeding, the doctor may be able to control it by injecting chemicals directly into the problem area, using an endoscope to guide the needle.
A doctor can also use heat to treat (or "cauterize") an area that is bleeding and surrounding tissue through the endoscope, or place a "clip on a bleeding blood vessel. Once the bleeding is under control, the patient may also need to take medicine to ensure the bleeding does not return.
Those techniques aren't always enough and sometimes the patient may need surgery. This will depend on the cause and condition. Severe haemorrhoids will have haemorrhoidectomy, fissures may need ointments or treatments. More serious diseases of the bowel will be treated on their merits.
Patients should also ensure they drink 8-10 glasses of water per day, bathe or shower daily to cleanse the skin around the anus, avoid sitting on the toilet for too long, apply ice packs to the affected area to decrease pain, and avoid drinking excessive amounts of alcohol, as that can contribute to dehydration, a primary cause of constipation.
Patients may also consider taking a sitz bath, which is a warm water bath with water just deep enough to cover the hips and buttocks, and can help relieve some symptoms of itching, pain and discomfort of haemorrhoids.
Obviously, if the patient has a more serious GI disease then that can be treated with the same merits and has its own prognosis. The bleeding itself is only a symptom, not a diagnosis.